Antoine Pevsner was born on January 18, 1884, in Orel, Russia. After leaving the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg in 1911, he traveled to Paris, where he saw the work of Robert Delaunay, Albert Gleizes, Fernand Léger, and Jean Metzinger. On a second visit to Paris in 1913 he met Amedeo Modigliani and Alexander Archipenko, who encouraged his interest in Cubism. Pevsner spent the war years between 1915–17 in Oslo with his brother Naum Gabo. On his return to Russia in 1917 Pevsner began teaching at the Moscow Academy of Fine Arts with Vasily Kandinsky and Kasimir Malevich.

In 1920 Pevsner and Gabo published the Realistic Manifesto. Their work was included in the Erste russische Kunstausstellung exhibition at the Galerie van Diemen in Berlin in 1922, held under the auspices of the Soviet government. The following year Pevsner visited Berlin, where he met Marcel Duchamp and Katherine Dreier. He then traveled to Paris, where he settled permanently, and become a French citizen in 1930. In 1926 his work was shown at the Little Review Gallery in New York. He and Gabo designed sets for the ballet La Chatte, produced by Sergei Diaghilev in 1927. In Paris, the two brothers were leaders of the Constructivist group of Abstraction-Création, an alliance of artists who embraced a variety of abstract styles.

During the 1930s, Pevsner’s work was shown in Amsterdam, Basel, London, New York, and Chicago. In 1946 he, Auguste Herbin, Gleizes, and others formed the Réalités Nouvelles group; their first exhibition was held at the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles in Paris in 1947. That same year Pevsner’s first solo show opened at the Galerie René Drouin in Paris. The Museum of Modern Art in New York presented the Gabo-Pevsner exhibition in 1948, and in 1952 Pevsner participated in Chefs-d’oeuvre du XXe siècle at the Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris. The same museum organized a solo exhibition of his work in 1957. In 1958 he was represented in the French Pavilion at the Venice Biennale. Pevsner died in Paris on April 12, 1962.